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司提反的演说

阿龙(AHARON HASINI)

五七六六年舍瓦特月修订

五七六六月初稿

 

新教基督徒中的基要主义者在传教中常常宣称基督教的新约和旧约完全一致,新约应验了旧约,旧约证明了新约,果真如此么?

注:经文引自和合本(基督教圣经中文译本)以及KJV(基督教圣经英文译本)。

 

司提反的演说:到底几个人?

 

[使徒行传7:14]

约瑟就打发弟兄请父亲雅各,和全家七十五个人都来。

Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen souls.

 

[创世记46:27]

还有约瑟在埃及所生的两个儿子。雅各家来到埃及的共有七十人。

And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.

 

[出埃及记1:5]

凡从雅各而生的,共有七十人。约瑟已经在埃及。

And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.

 

[申命记10:22]

你的列祖七十人下埃及。现在耶和华你的神使你如同天上的星那样多。

Thy fathers went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons; and now the LORD thy God hath made thee as the stars of heaven for multitude.

 

有新教徒说:『七十五个人』和《创世记》的『七十人』(创四十六27)说法有歧异,其原因或许是司提反采用了希腊文版的旧约圣经《七十士译本》,名单中另加了拿西的一儿孙,和以法莲的二儿孙,总共有七十五个人。

 

司提反的演说:到底葬在哪里?

 

[使徒行传7:15-16]

于是雅各下了埃及,后来他和我们的祖宗都死在那里。又被带到示剑,葬于亚伯拉罕在示剑用银子从哈抹子孙买来的坟墓里。

So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our fathers, and were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.

[创世记50:12-13]

雅各的儿子们就遵着他父亲所吩咐的办了,把他搬到迦南地,葬在幔利前,麦比拉田间的洞里。那洞和田是亚伯拉罕向赫人以弗仑买来为业,作坟地的。

And his sons did unto him according as he commanded them: for his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a burying place of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre.

 

 

有新教徒说:根据《创世记》,亚伯拉罕是在基列亚巴,就是『希伯仑』,用银子向赫人以弗仑买坟地(创廿三),雅各布也被葬在那里(创五十13);而在『示剑』用银子向哈抹的子孙买地的是雅各布(创卅三19),约瑟后来被埋葬在示剑(书廿四32)。根据犹太史学家约瑟夫考证,约瑟的兄弟们则都被葬在希伯仑。有许多解经家为了使本节与别处圣经和谐一致,就说是亚伯拉罕先买坟地,后因某种因素,此地又被哈抹的子孙霸占,后来又被雅各布用钱买回;从亚伯拉罕买地到雅各布再买地,中间年代约相隔了八十年。但这种解释法最大的破绽,乃是两人所买的并非同一块坟地,一块是在希伯仑,一块是在示剑。其实,司提反在此把两处的坟地笼统混杂的说在一起,在我们现代人听来,似乎显得很矛盾,但对当时的犹太人听众而言,是一种易于明白的简缩说法;他主要是在申明雅各布和他的子孙们虽然曾经下了埃及,也都死在那里(15),但并未葬在那里,而是葬在南地。

 

新教徒的这个说法带来的问题:以色列地(南地)狭小,希伯仑和示剑离得不能算近,这两个地方几千年来挪到一块儿了么?古时交通不方便,古人认为离得很远的地方今人可能觉得挺近,可今人都看着是两个地方,古人看着就该是一个地方?基督徒对两个地方非常熟悉:耶路撒冷和伯利恒。如果司提反(实际上并非是这个故事中的人物,而是使徒行传的作者)把这两个地方混杂起来合情合理,新约中还说耶稣生在伯利恒,新约中还说耶稣也下过埃及,那我把耶稣的出生地改成耶路撒冷是不是也合情合理呢?基督徒是不是应该无论如何也要相信我,无论如何也要替我辩护,无论如何也要跟着我把耶稣的出生地改在耶路撒冷呢?

 

司提反的演说:到底谁买谁卖?

 

[使徒行传7: 16]

又被带到示剑,葬于亚伯拉罕在示剑用银子从哈抹子孙买来的坟墓里。

And were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.

[创世记23:17~18]

于是,麦比拉,幔利前,以弗仑的那块田和其中的洞,并田间四围的树木,都定准归与亚伯拉罕,乃是他在赫人面前并城门出入的人面前买妥的。

And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city.

 

[创世记33:18~19]

雅各从巴旦亚兰回来的时候,平平安安地到了迦南地的示剑城,在城东支搭帐棚,就用一百块银子向示剑的父亲哈抹的子孙买了支帐棚的那块地,

And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city. And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred pieces of money.

 

 

司提反的演说:到底何时移居?

 

[使徒行传7:2-4]

司提反说,诸位父兄请听。当日我们的祖宗亚伯拉罕在美索不达米亚还未住哈兰的时候,荣耀的神向他显现,对他说,你要离开本地和亲族,往我要指示你的地方去。他就离开迦勒底人之地住在哈兰。他父亲死了以后,神使他从那里搬到你们现在所住之地。

And he said, Men, brethren, and fathers, hearken; The God of glory appeared unto our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Charran, and said unto him, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and come into the land which I shall shew thee. Then came he out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and dwelt in Charran: and from thence, when his father was dead, he removed him into this land, wherein ye now dwell.

[创世记11:26]

他拉活到七十岁,生了亚伯兰,拿鹤,哈兰。

And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

[创世记12:4]

亚伯兰就照着耶和华的吩咐去了。罗得也和他同去。亚伯兰出哈兰的时候,年七十五岁

So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.

 

[创世记11:32]

他拉共活了二百零五岁,就死在哈兰。

And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran.

 

 

他拉是不是在70岁生了亚伯兰(亚伯拉罕改名前叫亚伯兰)?亚伯兰75岁时离开哈兰,他拉那时是不是145岁(70+75=145)?他拉总共活了205岁,亚伯兰是不是在他拉死60(205 −145=60)离开了哈兰?而司提反是不是说他拉亚伯兰才离开了哈兰?

 

到底是新约应验了旧约呢,还是新约篡改了旧约呢?到底是旧约证明了新约呢,还是旧约证伪了新约呢?

 

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