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司提反的演

阿龍(AHARON HASINI)

五七六六年舍瓦特月修訂

五七六六年特威特月初稿

 

新教基督徒中的基要主義者在傳教中常常宣稱基督教的新約和舊約完全一致,新約應驗了舊約,舊約證明了新約,果真如此麼?

注:經文引自和合本(基督教聖經中文譯本)以及KJV(基督教聖經英文譯本)。

 

司提反的演說:到底幾個人?

 

[使徒行傳7:14]

約瑟就打發弟兄請父親雅各,和全家七十五個人都來。

Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen souls.

 

[創世記46:27]

還有約瑟在埃及所生的兩個兒子。雅各家來到埃及的共有七十人。

And the sons of Joseph, which were born him in Egypt, were two souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, which came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.

 

[出埃及記1:5]

凡從雅各而生的,共有七十人。約瑟已經在埃及。

And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.

 

[申命記10:22]

你的列祖七十人下埃及。現在耶和華你的神使你如同天上的星那樣多。

Thy fathers went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons; and now the LORD thy God hath made thee as the stars of heaven for multitude.

 

有新教徒說:『七十五個人』和《創世記》的『七十人』(創四十六27)說法有歧異,其原因或許是司提反採用了希臘文版的舊約聖經《七十士譯本》,名單中另加了瑪拿西的一兒一孫,和以法蓮的二兒一孫,總共有七十五個人。

 

司提反的演說:到底葬在哪里?

 

[使徒行傳7:15-16]

於是雅各下了埃及,後來他和我們的祖宗都死在那裏。又被帶到示劍,葬於亞伯拉罕在示劍用銀子從哈抹子孫買來的墳墓裏。

So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our fathers, and were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.

[創世記50:12-13]

雅各的兒子們就遵著他父親所吩咐的辦了,把他搬到迦南地,葬在幔利前,麥比拉田間的洞裏。那洞和田是亞伯拉罕向赫人以弗侖買來為業,作墳地的。

And his sons did unto him according as he commanded them: for his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a burying place of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre.

 

 

有新教徒說:根據《創世記》,亞伯拉罕是在基列亞巴,就是『希伯侖』,用銀子向赫人以弗侖買墳地(創廿三章),雅各也被葬在那裏(創五十13);而在『示劍』用銀子向哈抹的子孫買地的是雅各(創卅三19),約瑟後來被埋葬在示劍(書廿四32)。根據猶太史學家約瑟夫考證,約瑟的兄弟們則都被葬在希伯侖。有許多解經家為了使本節與別處聖經和諧一致,就說是亞伯拉罕先買墳地,後因某種因素,此地又被哈抹的子孫霸佔,後來又被雅各用錢買回;從亞伯拉罕買地到雅各再買地,中間年代約相隔了八十年。但這種解釋法最大的破綻,乃是兩人所買的並非同一塊墳地,一塊是在希伯侖,一塊是在示劍。其實,司提反在此把兩處的墳地籠統混雜的說在一起,在我們現代人聽來,似乎顯得很矛盾,但對當時的猶太人聽眾而言,是一種易於明白的簡縮說法;他主要是在申明雅各和他的子孫們雖然曾經下了埃及,也都死在那裏(15),但並未葬在那裏,而是葬在迦南地。

 

新教徒的這個說法帶來的問題:以色列地(迦南地)狹小,希伯侖和示劍離得不能算近,這兩個地方幾千年來挪到一塊兒了麼?古時交通不方便,古人認為離得很遠的地方今人可能覺得挺近,可今人都看著是兩個地方,古人看著就該是一個地方?基督徒對兩個地方非常熟悉:耶路撒冷和伯利恒。如果司提反(實際上並非是這個故事中的人物,而是使徒行傳的作者)把這兩個地方混雜起來合情合理,新約中還說耶穌生在伯利恒,新約中還說耶穌也下過埃及,那我把耶穌的出生地改成耶路撒冷是不是也合情合理呢?基督徒是不是應該無論如何也要相信我,無論如何也要替我辯護,無論如何也要跟著我把耶穌的出生地改在耶路撒冷呢?

 

司提反的演說:到底誰買誰賣?

 

[使徒行傳7: 16]

又被帶到示劍,葬於亞伯拉罕在示劍用銀子從哈抹子孫買來的墳墓裏。

And were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.

[創世記23:17~18]

於是,麥比拉,幔利前,以弗侖的那塊田和其中的洞,並田間四圍的樹木,都定準歸與亞伯拉罕,乃是他在赫人面前並城門出入的人面前買妥的。

And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the borders round about, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city.

 

[創世記33:18~19]

雅各從巴旦亞蘭回來的時候,平平安安地到了迦南地的示劍城,在城東支搭帳棚,就用一百塊銀子向示劍的父親哈抹的子孫買了支帳棚的那塊地,

And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city. And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred pieces of money.

 

 

司提反的演說:到底何時移居?

 

[使徒行傳7:2-4]

司提反說,諸位父兄請聽。當日我們的祖宗亞伯拉罕在美索不達米亞還未住哈蘭的時候,榮耀的神向他顯現,對他說,你要離開本地和親族,往我要指示你的地方去。他就離開迦勒底人之地住在哈蘭。他父親死了以後,神使他從那裏搬到你們現在所住之地。

And he said, Men, brethren, and fathers, hearken; The God of glory appeared unto our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Charran, and said unto him, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and come into the land which I shall shew thee. Then came he out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and dwelt in Charran: and from thence, when his father was dead, he removed him into this land, wherein ye now dwell.

[創世記11:26]

他拉活到七十歲,生了亞伯蘭,拿鶴,哈蘭。

And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

 

[創世記12:4]

亞伯蘭就照著耶和華的吩咐去了。羅得也和他同去。亞伯蘭出哈蘭的時候,年七十五歲

So Abram departed, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him: and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran.

 

[創世記11:32]

他拉共活了二百零五歲,就死在哈蘭。

And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years: and Terah died in Haran.

 

 

他拉是不是在70歲生了亞伯蘭(亞伯拉罕改名前叫亞伯蘭)?亞伯蘭75歲時離開哈蘭,他拉那時是不是145歲(70+75=145)?他拉總共活了205歲,亞伯蘭是不是在他拉死60(205 145=60)離開了哈蘭?而司提反是不是說他拉死亞伯蘭才離開了哈蘭?

 

到底是新約應驗了舊約呢,還是新約篡改了舊約呢?到底是舊約證明了新約呢,還是舊約證偽了新約呢?

 

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